Mount Damavand, a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the Middle East as well as the highest volcano in Asia (the Kunlon volcanic group in Tibet has a higher elevation than Damāvand, but are not considered to be volcanic mountains).It has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore. This peak is located in the middle of the Alborz range, adjacent to Vararu, Sesang and Gol-e Zard . The mountain is located near the southern coast of the Caspian sea, in Amol country, Mazandaran province, 66 kilometres (41 miles) northeast of the city of Tehran.
Symbolism and Mythology :
Damavand is a significant mountain in Persian mythology. It is the symbol of Iranian resistance against despotism and foreign rule in Persian poetry and literature. In Zoroastrian texts and mythology, the three-headed dragon Azi Dahaka was chained within Mount Damāvand, there to remain until the end of the world. In a later version of the same legend, the tyrant Zahhak was also chained in a cave somewhere in Mount Damāvand after being defeated by Kaveh and Fereydon. Persian poet Ferdowsi depicts this event in his masterpiece, the Shahnameh:
بیاورد ضحاک را چون نوند
به کوه دماوند کردش ببند
He brings Zahhak, himself a mountain
to the peak of Damavand and binds his neck.
The mountain is said to hold magical powers in the Shahnameh. Damāvand has also been named in the Iranian legend of Arash as the location he fired his arrow to mark the Iran border. The famous poem Damāvand by Mohammad Taghi Bahar is also one fine example of the mountain's significance in Persian literature. The first verse of this poem reads:
ای دیو سپید پای در بند
Ay dīve sepīde pāī dar band,
Oh white giant with feet in chains
ای گنبد گیتی، ای دماوند
Ay gonbade gītī, ay Damāvand
Oh dome of the world, Oh Mount Damāvand
Mount Damavand is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 10,000 rials banknote
Mount Damavand first erupted in the Pleictocene almost 1.78 million years ago. After several known eruptions around 600,000 and 280,000 years ago, it finally erupted about 7300 years ago in the Holocene. Its steep cone is formed of ash and Lava flows that are mainly made of trachyte, andesite and basalt. The Quaternary lavas are directly located on the Jurassic sediments. The volcano is crowned by a small crater with sulfuric deposits. There are also fumaroles, hot springs, and mineral deposits of travertine. Mount Damavand could be considered as a potentially active volcano, since there are fumaroles near the summit crater emitting sulfur, which were known to be active on July 6, 2007
Routes to the summit
</wiki/File:Damavand_Volcanic_Crater.JPG>Damavand volcanic crater in August
The best major settlement for mountain climbers is the new Iranian mountain federation camp in the village of Polour, located on the south of the mountain.
There are at least 16 known routes to the summit, with varying levels of difficulty. Some of them are very dangerous and require rock climbing. The most popular route is the Southern Route which has step stamps and a camp midway called Bargah Sevom Camp/Shelter at 4220 m (about 13,845 ft). The longest route is the Northeastern and it takes two whole days to reach the summit starting from downhill village of Nāndal and a night stay at Takht-e Fereydoun (elevation 4300 m - about 13,000 ft), a two-story shelter. The western route is famous for its sunset view. Sīmorgh shelter in this route at 4100 m (about 13,500 ft) is a newly constructed shelter with two stories. There is a frozen waterfall/Icefall .(Persian name Ābshār Yakhī) about 12 m tall and the elevation of 5100 m is the highest fall in Iran and Middle East.
Aerial Photo of Mount Damavand
Topo of the summit and ridges
Damavand's famous cloud hat
Topo of Mount Damavand
We recommend you 2 different itineraries to Climb mount Damavand . Both are effective and working well . It's your choice . The Compaxt itinerary is suitable for people who are not free for more than 6 days . You could also choose to mix your climb with some sightseeing of Iran's amazing cultural cities .
Damavand Itinerary : 9 Days ( Extended - Enough Acclimatization , Climbing 2 summits - Tochal and Damavand )
Day 1 : Pick up and welcome by our guide from airport, Transfer to hotel/flat .
Day 2 : Climb to Tochal peak ( 3900m ) for acclimatization . Breakfast and transfer from hotel/flat to the base of summit . Trek up to Shirpala hut (2800m and up to 4hrs ) and stay tonight .
Day 3 : Climb the summit of Tochal ( 3900m ) , coming back to city by Tochal Cabin , move to Federation refuge at Polur . Stay the night Day 4 : Move to the mosque on the south face of Damavand by a 4WD car, Start to trek up the mountain up to the 3rd Bargah . Mules will carry the stuff. You will sleep in tent/Bargah to night . ( Depends how much crowded is the refuge ! )
Day 5 : Acclimatization in the area , Move up to the frozen waterfall ( around 5000m ) and coming back to the refuge .
Day 6 : Move very early in the morning to climb Damavand summit . The exact elevation is 5609m and the climb is around7 hours from the refuge to the summit . After summit , come back to the refuge/tents .
Day 7 : Breakfast and coming back to Polur . Could enjoy the hotsprings in Larijan after the climb . stay at Polur federation refuge tonight.
Day 8 :Move back to Tehran and to the Hotel/Flat .
Day 9 : Transfer to airport and leave Iran .
Damavand Compact :
Day 1 : Pick up and welcome by our guide from airport, Transfer to Polur . Accommodation in Polur hut .
Day 2 : Move to the mosque on the south face of Damavand by a 4WD car, Start to trek up the mountain up to the 3rd Bargah . Mules will carry the stuff. You will sleep in tent/Bargah to night . ( Depends how much crowded is the refuge ! )
Day 3 : Acclimatization in the area , Move up to the frozen waterfall ( around 5000m ) and coming back to the refuge
Day 4 : Move very early in the morning to climb Damavand summit . The exact elevation is 5609m and the climb is around7 hours from the refuge to the summit . After summit , come back to the refuge/tents .
Day 5 : Breakfast and coming back to Polur . Could enjoy the hotsprings in Larijan after the climb . Transfer to Tehran and Hotel .
Day 6 : Departure
All the meals , Charterred transfers, Accommodation ( Hotel or Flat/ Refuges or tent ) , Expert english language guide , Permit to climb mount damavand , Visa reference code and paper work in Iran .
Excludes : Insurance .